History of translation

People have always tried to overcome cultural borders and to communicate with other people from all over the world.
So it is true that intercultural communication is as old as man. Ever since man developed alphabets,
texts have been translated.
Thousands of years ago, there were translations particularly from Greek into Latin, but also the early Christian translations
became famous. Cicero created something like the first theory of translation by explaining how he translated Greek speeches.
In the 9th Century in the Islamic south of Spain translations from Greek into Arabic were created.
In the 12th Century the “university of translation2 was founded in Toledo. A great variety of texts from different subjects
(astronomy, medicine, mathematics etc) were translated into Latin or other languages. Toledo, which again has been
part of the Christian world since 1085, maintained the Arabic and Jewish structure.
People of all three religions lived there in peace. The University of Translation translated the most important classic literature.
The work of Greek philosophers was translated into Latin. But on the other hand there was also translated Arabic and Jewish literature.
But long before texts had been translated in writing, there was work for interpreters.
Interpreting was even mentioned in the Old Testament (Joseph and his brothers) in Ancient Egypt interpreters were needed for wars and negotiations. Also in the old Roman Empire interpreters were needed:
For the empire interpreters were important for official contact with foreign representatives, on one hand for practical reasons and on the other hand because the Romans did not want to use Greek or the Barbarian languages.